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Turnitin Originality Report

Turnitin Originality Report

Eit 2 by Luqman Hakim

From EIT (EIT)

  • Processed on 22-Sep-2014 08:53 MYT
  • ID: 454860100
  • Word Count: 5768
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1.0 BACKGROUND OF COMPANY 1.1 COMPANY LOGO 1.2 COMPANY PROFILES 3Established in 1975, the Department of Environment (DOE) of Malaysia is responsible for the prevention, control and abatement of pollution in the country through the enforcement of the Environmental Quality Act of 1974 and its subsidiary legislation. The agency is guided by the vision to conserve the uniqueness, diversity and quality of the environment with the objective of maintaining health, prosperity, security and well-being for present and future generations. It defines its mission as promoting, ensuring and sustaining sound environmental management in the process of nation building and towards a healthy future. 3The DOE is the federal authority in Malaysia that also monitors air and water quality and noise, manages toxic and hazardous wastes based on the “cradle-to-grave” principle and implements the Environmental Impact Assessment system. To ensure that staff, related government agencies and industry representatives have the opportunity to better understand policies, tools and developments in environmental management, the Department established and operates the Environment Institute of Malaysia (EiMAS), with full training facilities within the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) campus in Selangor. In addition, the agency operates a complaint hotline, and maintains a control room in Putrajaya that operates around the clock for immediate response. DOE is under the22Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. The 7Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, is a government ministry that is responsible determining the policies and direction to achieve the goals of Natural Resources and the Environment, in line with Malaysia's commitment towards the United Nations'. 1.2 ORGANISATIONAL CHART Refer to Appendix 1 2.0 SUMMARY OF DUTIES 2.1 JOB SCOPE In the three months of the industrial training, each trainee in Department of Environment (DOE) Perlis has been assigned to a different unit every week (Refer to Appendix 2). In DOE, there are three division, which are Management Division, Enforcement Division and Development Division. Management division deals with the managing of the department and also with the financial. There is also Enforcement division which consist of two (2) units which are, Complaints, Open Burning and Contingency Unit and Point Source Unit. Assigned to Point Source for a week, the purpose of this unit is to enforce and also monitoring the schedule waste, water quality produce by the workshop, factories and also industry to meet the regulation of Environmental Quality Act 1974. Complaints, Open Burning and Contingency Unit deals with complaints received from individuals related to oil or chemical spillage into drains or ground. For open burning, officers will patrol any activities that involve with any open burning from industries, workshop or residential area which may harm or disturb the residents or passers-by. If there is an activity of open burning, officers will make necessary requirement to take action against the law breaker which may resulted a compound or a fine according to Section 29A(2) or 29B, Environmental Quality Act 1974. In Development Division there are three (3) other unit, mobile source unit, evaluation unit and education unit. Mobile source unit handles source of pollution that involved 19motor vehicles, which is the main contributor of the air pollution. The release of soot and gas such as 16carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate from vehicles are monitored using 9Environmental Quality (Control of Emission from Diesel Engine) Regulation 1996. [P.U.(A) 429/96] and Environmental Quality (Control of Emission From Petrol Engine) Regulation 1996. [P.U.(A) 543/96]. Mobile source also handles with the monitoring of noise pollution made from motorcycles, which monitored using Environmental Quality (Noise from Motor Vehicle) Regulation 1987. Every motor vehicles from the road must passed through inspection for emission of gas and smoke in Motor Vehicle Inspection Center (PUSPAKOM). Officers from Department of Environment will make a monthly routine operation with the Road Transport Department Malaysia (JPJ) to check upon the emission of gas and smoke and noise pollution from motor vehicles. Compound will be summoned upon drivers or companies who did not get through check-up routine in PUSPAKOM. Evaluation unit handles about Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Preliminary Site Assessment (PA), Written Approval (KB) and also enforcement. These unit handles the first step in evaluating a site in which the developer will conduct their 20development of the site. In order to develop a certain area, a developer must write a report of preliminary EIA and also a detailed report of EIA and submitted to state DOE office and to the DOE Headquarters. Provision of EIA report has been implemented since 1st April 1988 to 19 different prescribed activities, under 12Environment Quality (Prescribed Activities) (Environmental Impact Assessment) regulation 1987. Under the section 34A, Environment Quality Act 1974, whoever shall wanted to carry out a prescribed activity, a report of detailed EIA must be submitted to the director for approval before any other approval to be given out from any authorities. Under the Preliminary Site Assessment (PA), an assessment of the site is needed in order to prevent the profanation of the environment. It is also the process of evaluating the appropriateness of the location of the proposed development will be implemented. To make life smooth, in preliminary work and identification of location and land use around the site requested, Geographical Information System (GIS) is used. Then, there are education unit. It promotes on education, awareness and environmental dissemination of information include various activities such as talks, exhibition, seminar, colloquium, Environmental Awareness Camp or Kem Kesedaran Alam Sekitar (KeKAS), environmental partner program or Program Rakan Alam Sekitar (RAS), Environmental Week or Program Sambutan Minggu Alam Sekitar (MASM) and also promotion by printed medium. 2.2 WORK PROGRESSION Week Date Activities Conducted 1 9 June 2014 - 22 June 2014 a) Get to know the working environment. b) Get to know the company profiles. c) Involve in a briefing about The Assessment of New Environment Air Quality. d) Involve in a “Client Day” exhibition organized by Lembaga Pertubuhan Peladang (MADA) 2 23 June 2014 – 30 June 2014 a) Went to Kilang Gula Felda Perlis under Education unit b) Read on the guidelines for the handling and management of clinical waste in Malaysia c) Read on Air Pollution of Industrial Chemical 3 1 July 2014 – 6 July 2014 a) Briefed by En Wan Hafizi and Pn Norzalizah about mobile source unit. b) Task given by En Wan Hafizi to read about the emission control from sources such as petrol, diesel and noise pollution. c) Went to two car workshop to check on their air coolant refrigerant. 4 7 July 2014 – 13 July 2014 a) Briefed talk with Pn Norasmawati and En Helmi who is in charge of Point source unit of Padang Besar. b) Visit three company for Anugerah Industri Hijau. i. HPA Industry Sdn Bhd ii. IAMKO Metal Industry Sdn Bhd iii. Frutania Industry Sdn Bhd c) Read about Industrial Air Pollution Monitoring 5 14 July 2014 – 20 July 2014 a) Briefed discussion with En Muniff and En Sharizan about Geographical Information System (GIS) b) Read about GIS and take a looked a GIS in the DOE website. c) Introduction to equipment used in inspection by En Muniff. d) Also had a briefed discussion about Preliminary Site Assessment (PA). e) Site visit to 6 21 July 2014 – 27 July 2014 a) Attached to point source unit (Kangar), en Zulhilmi and en Sayudi who is charge of this unit. b) Had a briefed discussion about the forms and matter pertaining to workshop. c) Had discussion about schedule waste with the officer. d) Site visit to e) Read about managing container containing schedule waste. f) Read about Storage are Inspection. 7 28 July 2014 – 3 August 2014 RAYA HOLIDAY 8 4 August 2014 – 10 August 2014 a) Had a briefed discussion with En Azzlan about Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) who is in charge in dealing with full report of EIA. b) Read about the preliminary report on additional lot for Pens Industries Sdn Bhd Perlis (Quarry) c) Read an EIA report on proposed available tracking railway project between Ipoh-Padang Besar. d) Read about the development of variety planting in Felda Chuping, Perlis 9 11 August 2014 – 17 August 2014 a) Working on the mini project b) Read about Cleaner Production booklet. 10 18 August 2014 – 24 August 2014 a) Site visit to three industry that have workshop. i. CIMACO Quarry Chuping, Perlis ii. Kilang Gula Felda Perlis (Plantation) Division iii. Makmal PPK Bahan (Material Laboratory) b) Site visit to scrap metal workshop i. Sanyu Utara ii. SNS Star Enterprise iii. Vetsmetal sdn Bhd iv. Sentri Auto c) Site visit to 2 workshop. i. Keat North Auto ii. Vishh Auto 11 25 August 2014 – 31 August 2014 a) Working on the mini project b) Working on the scrap book (Refer to Appendix 3) 1 Sept 2014 – 7 Sept 2014 a) Education trip to Air Monitoring station in Institut Latihan Perindustrian (ILP) Perlis accompanied by En Muniff and En Jefri from Inspection unit. 3.0 WORKING EXPERIENCES 3.1 PROJECTS CARRIED OUT Refer to Appendix 4 3.2 SUPERVISORY WORKS On the first two weeks, there was not much to do, as the staffs were waiting for the other industrial training trainee. We were given the brief tour and the staff talked about the working environment around the office. There were two floors which placed the administration unit and the enforcement unit. During the first two weeks, we were assigned in the education unit which is responsible in educate and promote the environmental awareness to the community which has been the main priority in Department Of Environment Perlis to support the government agendas in managing sustainable environment. On the second day, 10th June, there were a meeting on Assessment of New Environment Air Quality Regulation, where officer from DOE Kedah gave a seminar on New Air Quality Regulation to the staffs and officers of DOE Perlis. The seminar went on for two days and there were new regulation that were implemented and improvised from the current regulation. Some of the improvised regulations were: ? To differentiate the use of emission and discharge in air quality regulation, ? To use Best Available Technique (BAT) in every situation such as in energy efficiency, waste minimization, process integration and cleaner production. ? To use and differentiate regulation on new and old premises. We had the opportunity to attend and involve in an exhibition organized by the Lembaga Pertubuhan Peladang (MADA) for the program “Day with Clients”. The program invited all farmers and customer who want to buy products produced by small industry to be used in agriculture or plantation. There are task that were given to me by my supervisor which were to give leaflet on environmental awareness and also a membership form to the client that were coming. They feedback of the program were quite good as there are nearly 200 people attended the program. Managed to collect nearly all of the membership form given, around 120 forms. One week after, we had the opportunity to involve in education trip to Kilang Gula Felda Perlis (KGFP) (Figure 1), where we were welcomed by Mr Md Faudzi, who is the Head of Admin/Personnel for KGFP, Mr Hafizudin who is the person in-charge for smoke and boiler and Mrs Farhana who is in charge for effluent discharge. Briefed talks were given by Mr Md Faudzi about the history of sugar mills in the country, where there are 4 factories in producing sugar, one is KGFP, and the other three were, 15Central Sugar Refinery Sdn Bhd (CSR), Gula Padang Terap Sdn Bhd (GPT), and Malaysia Sugar Manufacturing Sdn Bhd (MSM). The management of KGFP are divided into two, which are factory management and plantation management. We learnt that, the sugar cane to mass produce the sugar are imported from Brazil and other parts of country who mass produce sugar. Figure 1 Kilang Gula Felda Perlis (KGFP), Sugar Milling factory in Padang Besar, Perlis On the third week, student was assigned to point source (Arau) unit. There are three division of point source which are referred to the area in Perlis, Padang Besar, Kangar and Arau. Point source (Arau) unit lead by Pn Hafishoh and co-assisted by Pn Ruslinda, point source (Kangar) unit lead by En Zulhilmi and En Sayudi and point source (Padang Besar) unit lead by Pn Norasmawati and En Helmi. The job scope for point source is to inspect workshop for scheduled waste such as, waste oil, battery and oil filter that come from the vehicles (Figure 2). Mainly in Perlis, scheduled waste that is concerned with is the waste oil and oil filter and must be recorded (Refer to Appendix 5). Scheduled waste, such as waste oil need to be disposed in a barrel which needs to be sent to third party for disposal and recycle process. Barrels of waste oil are needed to be stored in shelters which need to have a perfect rain cover and a covered floor for any chances for the oils to leak to the ground (Figure 3). Figure 2 Barrel that contain waste oil which are labelled with the code SW 305 and the manufactured industry Figure 3 A good shelter for the storage of waste oil and oil filter Barrels of oil waste need to be disposed at least once in 3 month or at least when they are full to the brim. Contractor may buy or take the barrels and sell it to other company or industries for other uses. Scheduled waste other than waste oil, such as batteries also need to follow same regulations. There are rules made by DOE, which one of the many rules is to: ? ? ? have a shelter for the waste oil, have a covered floor for any chance of oil leaked, disposed the barrels of waste oil at least once in 180 days/3 month prior to 20 ton of waste oil, ? ? ? ? ? ? ? have labelling for the barrels, have special management of waste oil, have barrels that doesn’t leaked, have inventories and safe record of the disposal and waste oil, have transportation information, have a record of leaked scheduled waste And have training programmes. These rules abide the Environment Quality Act 1974 under Environment Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Regulation 2005. Some of the premises doesn’t follow the specified regulation and compound and fine were issued. However, in some cases, a consultation talk is given on what to do if the premises doesn’t know the procedure. On the third week, student was assigned to mobile source unit. Mobile source unit lead by Pn Norzalizah with co-assisted by En Anuar, En Zulkifli and En Wan Hafizi. Under the mobile source unit, the job scope of this unit is to inspect on car workshop such as YS Auto Cooling Sdn Bhd which deals with air conditioning refrigerant. There are two types of refrigerant, 134a and r12 (Figure 4). Bino 134a is from hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and r12 is from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), as of currently, CFC is considered dangerous as it can harm the ozone layer, so the uses of CFC in car air conditioning system is terminated unless the car itself is old. Nowadays the use of HFC is being used nationwide as it contained less harmful substance that can affect the environment. The refrigerant are cased in a small pressurized tank, there are device that measures the pressure inside the tank, the device is called Ultima 1D HAVC Refrigerator (Figure 5) and it will detect if the tank contains Bino 134a, r12 or any other gases. Figure 4a Two pressurized 134a refrigerant tank Figure 4b Officer checking the pressure in one the refrigerant tank r12. Figure 5 An officer showing the use of the device to check pressure in pressurized tank Other function of mobile source unit is to inspect noise and gas emission from vehicle. Routine check-up is done at least once a month. DOE with cooperation of Road Transport Department (DRT) setup a roadblock to check every vehicle for gas emission, from motorcycles, motorcars, and even lorry. Devices were used to check the noise and also the gas emission, as for device measuring noise pollution it is called Onosokki (Figure 6) and there are other components of measuring noise, Anemometer which measure wind speed, Barometer which measure the pressure, Calibrator which calibrate the components and Digital Meter Tachometer. As for measurement of gas emission it is called YSI and Multigas (Figure 7). They are techniques in how to use the device, as for the noise control device. They must be placed at 45 degree angle and levelled to the source of the noise. There is also measurement on ambient noise. Table 1 shows the noise level in some places such as residential, industries, and public places. Figure 6 A noise pollution device called Onosokki Figure 7 Device that measure gas emission from vehicle Table 1 Maximum Permissible Ambient Noise level. Mobile Source unit also deals with inspection of air pollution, ground water quality and marine water quality. Another unit is 10Environmental Impact Assessment unit, which is a process which is used to know the environmental consequences whether the process plan will be positive or negative, regarding to 10policy, program, or project prior to the implementation decision done by the contractors. It propose 8measures to adjust the impacts to acceptable levels or to investigate new technological solutions. The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider the environmental impacts when deciding whether or not to proceed with a project. Student had to read the report and understand on how the procedure and actions are taken. There are several skills that had been obtained from this internship and one of them is communication skills, environmental officer need to have a good communication skill to talk to the owner of the premises regarding the implementation on regulation. Other than that, it is management skills, students need the ability to manage their works on time and to integrate the work cleanly for smooth learning. There are several more other but mainly in environment surrounding it had to do with communication skills. 3.3 PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED There were several problems during the internship, one of them is intern student need to ask every unit whether they are going site visit or monitoring this week or the next week depends on the given schedule. It was a hard at first, to ask the officer whether they were doing routing check up on the workshop, doing inspection on industry or premises or going to the pollution quality monitoring. Another problem faced is that, the officer in charge of the unit doesn’t allowed any intern student to follow because of the several big issues that can lead to court cases. Some of the workshop premises or industry can create a big issue to the DOE officer that might lead to cases in court. Several issues pertaining to court cases is that, mainly the premises doesn’t follow Environmental Quality Act regulation. Other than that is, the premises doesn’t have any permit to build or construct the premises and the owner of the premises hide from the officer. Furthermore, there are also problems regarding the schedule of each unit. From my understanding, each unit is given 16 visits to any premises in their own area in a month. So, it depends on each unit how they want to plan and visit any 16 premises. One problem is that, sometimes, on one day, they will do 4-6 visit to premises. This is one of the problem faced by the student, which sometimes, when they ask the officer if they are going to do any site visit, the limit of site visit for an officer had been reached. 3.4 PROBLEMS SOLVING PROCESS AND APPROACH As mentioned earlier in the previous sub chapter, the solving process was easy, which is to ask directly to the officer in charge with a bold face and to ask them whether there are going anywhere in the next few weeks. The students also need to follow up each day if the plan of doing site visit is still on going. Moreover, on the problem pertaining to the schedule of the officer, it is their jobs to do what is easier for them, for example, if some of the workshop is nearby, they will do it simultaneously in one day. The students need to ask the officer in charge everyday if they are still available to do site visit. Regarding the matter on the court cases, they are not much that the student can do other than to ask other unit if they have any work or if they are going to site visit. 4.0 CONCLUSION It was a good experience in Department of Environment (DOE) as student learnt how to preserve the environment in a diplomatic way by using the law to implement regulation to premises in order the sustain the environment for future generation. I have gained many knowledge regarding the environment and the laws. To be working with the environment, one need to know the Environmental Quality Act 1974 and some of the regulation. There are many regulation pertaining to different parts of the environment. Mainly in Perlis, the law or regulation that we are dealing with is the schedule waste and also regarding the permit. Nevertheless, it was a once in a lifetime experience to be exposed in the management and enforcement unit in environmental surrounding. Appendix 3 MINI PROJECT ON A STUDY ON AIR POLLUTION INDEX (API) TREND IN PERLIS AND FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTED TO THE AIR QUALITY (EVALUATED FROM 2008-2012) SUPERVISOR: PN FAIIZAH BT MD ARSHAD TABLE OF CONTENT Chapter Content Page Number 1 Abstract 1 2 Introduction 2 3 Objectives 3 4 Location of Study 3 5 Methodology 4 6 Result 6 7 Discussion 9 8 Conclusion 11 9 References 11 TITLE: A STUDY ON AIR POLLUTION INDEX (API) TREND IN PERLIS AND FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTED TO THE AIR QUALITY (EVALUATED FROM 2008-2012) FIELD STUDY 1.0 ABSTRACT Air pollution can affect the environment in such a harsh way if we don’t take any precaution in combating the source of the pollution. For example, open burning, the combustion of gas in petrol and diesel engine, emission from industries and many more. 2Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the environment. The contaminants may be spewed into the air, water or soil. They contaminate our natural resources. In this activity, we are concerned with distinguishing between various sources of pollution. Point source pollution results when the contaminants come from a single location. Examples of point source pollution in the air, water and soil are given below. Air. A certain factory is producing chemicals. As part of the manufacturing process, certain poisonous chemicals and toxic gases result, such as benzene. The chemical company permits these toxins to be released from the stack at the factory without treating them. The untreated, toxic chemicals are released directly into the air.2Non-point-source pollution results when contaminants are introduced into the environment over a large, widespread area. Some examples follow. Air. People drive cars. When a car is running, the engine produces a variety of chemical products including oxides of nitrogen (some of which are toxic) and molecules of unburned hydrocarbons from gasoline. Similar pollutants and soot result from burning and other combustion processes. Combustion of fuel is used for heating homes and buildings. Large trucks and buses with diesel engines contribute to smoke and hydrocarbons. New federal standards approved in late 2000 call for changes in these vehicles over a five-year period. Once the changes are in place, it is expected that emissions from these vehicles will decrease. Burning of fuels with a high sulfur content also produces sulfur dioxide which enters the air. Sulfur dioxide reacts with water in the air to produce sulfurous acid which is a major component of acid rain. 2.0 INTRODUCTION 4There are 52 National Air Quality Monitoring Stations (AQMS) in Malaysia, function to monitor continuously 5 major pollutants, namely Particulate Matter (PM10), Ozone (O3), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) and Carbon Monoxide (CO). For the northern region of Malaysia (Perlis, Kedah, Pulau Pinang and Perak), the overall air quality levelwas lies between good to moderate. However, there are curtain places (Tanjung Malim, Alor Star and Sungai Petani) recorded unhealthy level of the day especially in the mid of the day till late afternoon due to high concentration of ground level ozone (O3). In Tanjung Malim, one unhealthy day was recorded due to high level of particulate matter (PM10). [1] Air Pollutant Index (API) system were used in reporting the air quality status in Malaysia. The API compute from the monitoring of Ground level Ozone (O3), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) and Particulate Matter of less than 10 microns in size (PM10). Air quality status can be categorized in five main level (good, moderate, unhealthy, very unhealthy and hazardous). Shown in Table 1. Table 1 Malaysia: Air Pollution Index (API) level. This field study is conducted on the month of June until August in Perlis. The study is aiming at how the air pollution are being measured using a standard measuring device and how the air pollution affects the environment. There is only one device that are able to measure air pollution which is in Institut Latihan Perindustrian (ILP) Kangar. Figure 211 Location of Continuous Air Quality Monitoring System (CAQMS) in Institut Latihan Perindustrian (ILP) Kangar. 3.0 OBJECTIVES Some objectives from this field study are: · To study the Air Pollution Index (API). · To acknowledge the source and effects of air pollution in the environment. 4.0 LOCATION OF STUDY As there is only one device to measure air pollution which is in ILP Kangar, the measurement of air pollution only at this location. Due to the small state, there is only one device which is Continuous Air Quality Monitoring Station (CAQMS) used to measure the air pollution. A brief history about the device’s location. CAQMS in Perlis used to be at Lembaga Kemajuan Pertanian Muda (MADA), Behor Temak, Kangar, due to state government decision to look at the trend of air pollution in Perlis, the device is relocated to Institut Latihan Perindustrian (ILP) Kangar. [7] The device was moved not long ago, 2 years back and as of current evaluation of air monitoring situated in ILP Kangar. The device must be at 30 degree elevation from nearby building, which means that any taller building near it will interrupt the measurement to be recorded. 5.0 METHODOLOGY Air quality monitoring is carried out to detect any significant pollutant concentrations which may have possible adverse effects to human health. Due to the uncertainty of a trip to the Air Quality Monitoring device in ILP Kangar Perlis, the data were extracted from APIMS and also AQICN from the year 2008 to 2012. Data were recorded from time to time in a year to see whether there has been any changes in Air Pollution Index (API) and its effect on the environment. 5How is the API calculated? Following the requirement of the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Standard (MAAQS) from the standpoint of human health implications as shown in Table 2, the 5pollutants was measured at varying averaging time according to WHO standard2. To determine the API for a given time period, the sub-index values (for all five air pollutants included in the API System) were calculated based on the average concentration calculated. The maximum sub-index of all five pollutants was selected as the API and the specific responsible air pollutants for the API value has to be reported to indicate the relevant health effect category and actions to be taken. The process flow chart for calculating API value at a given time was detailed in Figure 2 below. [3] Figure 2 Air Pollution Index (API) Calculation. Table 2 The Recommended Malaysia Air Quality Guidelines (at 25oC and 1 atm) In the recommended ambient air quality guidelines, the following pollutants are the parameters that has been taken into consideration under Malaysia government in combating excess pollutant to pollute the environment. The averaging time are the maximum time permitted for the pollutant to have serious health effect on people. For example, for ozone pollutant, there are two (2) average time which is 1 hour and 8 hour. In average time of 1 hour, the maximum allowable concentration at that interval must not be more than 0.10ppm, otherwise a higher result could mean health risk potential. For 8 hours averaging time, it the same as 1 hour only that it has taken annually for averaging of 3 years. 6.0 DATA RESULT In a five year period, data were collected for Air Pollution Index (API). [4] 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Figure 3 Accumulative Air Pollution Index (API) for Perlis reading from 2008– 2012 Table 3 Air Quality status by station (Kangar, Perlis) 7.0 DISCUSSION 1Overall quality of air in Perlis is determined by Air Pollution Index (API). This API system closely follows the Pollutant Standard Index (PSI) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and is mainly based on five major pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3) 1in the ambient air. Hourly values for PM10 and SO2 are averaged over a 24-hour running period, with an 8-hour period for CO, while O3 and NOx are read hourly before an hourly index is calculated with the use of sub-index functions for each pollutant. Then, the highest index value recorded is then taken as the API for the hour. API = Max {sub-indices of all five air pollutants} The6API is calculated based on the average daily concentrations of air pollutants SO2, NO2, CO, O3 and PM10. Dominant air pollutant with the highest concentration considered as pollutants that will determine the IPU. Typically, concentration of fine dust (PM10) is the highest compared to the pollutant others, and this determines the API readings. Table 4 below are procedure involved in calculating API values. Table 4 Procedure involved in calculating API values Perlis is categorized under sub-urban area and rarely have big problem in dealing with the pollutant as the statistic have showed that the Air Quality Index every year is at below 55 on average, which are considered to be in healthy state with an exception on the year of 2009, where haze from neighboring country scours through part of Malaysia and affected most of Malaysian daily routine and air quality. [6] According to DOE, the air quality in Perlis (based on API) was healthy most of the time during year 2009, 2010 and 2012. The reading on the year 2008 and 2011 showed some higher reading. This is due to the haze and gases emission of the motor vehicle, 1Air pollution can be caused by various sources, such as factories, power plants, dry cleaners, vehicles and even windblown dust and wildfires. Afroz et al. [2] reported that for the past five years the three major sources of air pollution in Malaysia are mobile sources (c.a. 70-75% of total air pollution), stationary sources (c.a. 20-25%), and open burning sources (c.a. 3-5%). This was proven by the high emission of unburnt hydrocarbons from motor vehicles and other oil and gas related works, and the emission of SO2 due to high sulphur fuel dependency for industrial production and electric power generation.1Other sources of pollutants included dust and fine particulate, which were contributed by the inefficiency of diesel-powered vehicles and also the smoke aerosol from fires on peninsular Malaysia. In Perlis however, source of pollution are mainly from open burning of paddy fields, in most part of Perlis and also from the quarry, like in Padang Besar. Due to tight schedule given to the most Paddy farmer, they did most of open burning in average scale and not on windy days. During the hot weather, farmers used to burn their field so that they can plant a new seed in a few weeks after harvesting season is finished. Due to that, high reading of API will be measured and the technical staff of Air Quality Monitoring Station will already know that the sudden rise of API is due to the open burning. If there is any offence committed by an individual or company, according to the Section 29A(2) or 29B, Environmental Quality Act 1974, the compound will not exceed RM2,000 for each stack of burning and 14a fine not exceeding RM500,000 or to imprisonment not exceeding 5 years or to both. Meteorological factors 1like wind profile, temperature, atmospheric pressure, and others also can contribute to air pollution, such as the transformation of emissions into photochemical smog, mixing of the pollutants, acid rain and many more. Comparison is made between Perlis and Penang station. As we can see, Penang station always has been on the alert side because of the recorded reading always been above moderate. The main factor was particulate emission from vehicle, haze and also due to hot weather. As a Biotech Engineer, there are few ideas on how to use waste material such as hays to a good use, such as producing bioethanol or biofuels for sustainability and other thing is to make stacks for animal feeding. Hay stack is the most recommended and sustainable way for environment as it does not cause any pollution. Other waste material such as bottles, paper or leaves from tree can be recycled. 8.0 CONCLUSION The project reached the objectives on how to study about 17Air Pollution Index (API) and the factor that contribute to the air quality. Air quality in Perlis always been on the healthy side since 2010 and never been more than moderate of 100 API, which may harm human health. As for Perlis, a spark in the level of API to a moderate level is only because of the paddy burning after harvesting season finished. Other than that is due to the haze from neighboring country, Indonesia. Ideas on how to use waste material that may contributed to air pollution are still ongoing. 9.0 REFERENCES 1. UKEssay. Retrieved June 14, 2014 from sciences/current-air-quality-trend-in-malaysia-environmental-sciences- essay.php#ixzz3A2jSaVsg 2. AQICN. Retrieved July 22, 2014 from 3. Air Pollution Index (API). Retrieved August 12, 2014 13from umum /english-air-pollutant-index-api/100 4. Official DOE Portal. Retrieved August 3, 2014 from 5. 11World Health Organization (WHO) (2005 - Updated) WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. 6. Newspaper. Retrieved August 25, 2014 from 18 indonesia-haze-idUSTRE55B1BX20090612 7. ASMA Monitoring Officer, Radzi Bin Hassan. Department of Environment. Appendix 3
Assalamualaikum wbt.

Wah! Wah! dah lama aku tak post benda kat sini kan?

ye la aku asyik fokus dekat main blog aku je ni. Words Of Curiosity.

nak promote blog ni pun aku rasa malas. hehe